In the earliest times determination
of the origin of a nation could be based on their own reports. The
opportunities increased by being connect to them being able to observe
their somatic traits, their nice looking first of all. Considering
characteristics of their habits could further help to identify
relations, especially if groups with similar habits were known already.
Identity could be more precisely identified by the development of
writing and culture. Appearance and development of Natural sciences was
of course a big step forward.
There was a big race evolved driven by proudness and eager caused by
the more information of ancient civilizations from the "Big Bang" of
the scientific life. The goal was to prove cultural superiority and
relation to the past glorious nations of the ancient world, supported
by a huge amount of geopolitical tactics, economical resources and
military troops. No doubt, every European nations could be the
descendants of those late great empires, having sufficient size of
colonies in the key geographic positions could get to pole position by
the earned finanancials
The development of anthropology was also determined by the results of
this race. The primary goal was besides objectivity to prove theories
based on alleged or real results of archeology. This is how all
European nations great in exploitation could become direct descendants
of the European, Near and Middle Eastern high civilizations. This is
how wheel inventing Schythian-Indogermans couls reach Germania in shot
time of 4000 years from the area covering Eastern Europe up to Altai.
This is how any Near Eastern cultures became Semitic, and this is how
the Scythian kurgans of Central Asia cover the forefathers of all Slavs.
Of course Hungarians had to be put into the picture, but there was an
ideology needed for Habsburgs had no interest to enforce the national
feelings of the most rebellious colony. On one hand they would isolate
Hungarians from Turkish-Turkic connections, also breaking national
proudness to relate them to the Finnish to date having very low
culture. In spite of the memories of old chronicles, legends and
mythology binding Hungarians to Huns, to Atilla, the "Scourge of God".
This initiative received the full support of linguistics,
creating the thesis of Finno-Ugrain languages, that seems to be carved
in stones in Hungary against the results of any other sciences, while
the Finnish Academy of Sciences is already rejecting the theory.
The Antropological View
The result of antropology confirmed
the obvious issues around the
Finnougrian theory, also highlighting that against any other European
nations, there is no word of a nation of single race in case
Hungarians. Hungarians consist of at least five major antropologic
Physiology also provides important
information in the identification of
the origin of a nation. Within the blood group system attributed to
the rate of the "0" and "B" bloodgroup genes characterizing Hungarians
(31.05% and 17.90%)
is off from the Indoeauropean and Finnougrian nations, but it is within
the range found among Central Asian Turkic nations. There is another
bloodgroup type among Hungarians, Diego [A+],
that is present in no other people of Europe. The "Mongolian spot",
that is almost unknown in
Europe, has 22.6% occurrence. Lactose
intolerance (missing lactose digestive enzyme), rare elsewhere in
Europe, is at 37% among Hungarians,
exactly as in Central Asia. The skin splinter system of Hungarians has
Asian characteristic (low bend rates, but high vortices). Observing the
bones of 9th century Hungarians antropologist Pál Lipták
24% of Settling Hungarians was Turanid, 20% Pamirian and 2-3% belongs
to the formations arose in Asia. Turanid type is the mix of andrvov and
mongolic types, while the Pamiro-Ferganian is an archetype of Xinjiang,
the land under Chinese control today. These are all evidences of the
relationship of the 8th century Hungarians and the oldest inhabitants
of Northwestern China. Ethnic set up of today's Hungarians is basically
the same as in the 9th century, according antropologist Gyula Henkey,
for the later settling populations shared similar characteristics
coming from old Hun and Avar territories.
type. The old country of these people is the Heart of Asia, East
Turkestan; this type is common among the ones graved in
from the 3rd century CE. The most Western (Northern and Southern)
appearance of this type is in the Carpathian
Basin in Europe,
having 30-35% of occurrence in today's population of Hungary.
Type comes from the area of Pamir,
Altai, Central Asia and the Iranian
Highland. This type of people were buried in Central Asian Astana and Ordos.
with the Huns
first, then with Avars and Hungarians. This is the typical character of
the Hungarian Plain's ploughmen, having 10-15% of occurrence
in the Carpathian Basin.
Type characterizes Turkish, Scythian, Sarmatian and
Yazig nations partially, occurring among Hungarians in 5-8%
from the Hunnish times through Avars and the Settlement until today,
however in the Kiskunság, this rate can easily go up to 14%.
Asia Minor, the Caucasus,
and the Iranian Highland.
type characterizes the people of the
Eastern European Plains, where the fathers of Hungarians, Pechenegs,
Kumans, Yazigs went through. However this type is not common in the old
quarters of the
Hungarians, the type could come from Levedia and Etelköz
quarters by mixture
and join. This type occurs in 8-10% rate, but in Palócland
reach 35% because of mixing with Slavic population.
Type characterizes Finnougrian nations, coming from the
area between Urals and river Sayan. It's first occurrence among
Hungarians can be proven from the 10th century CE in rate 0.6% that
is valid also
today. This means that Hungarians really went through some
Finnougrian lands, but that population played no important role in
shaping the ethnic picture of Hungarians. The "Mongoloid"
elements of the Hungarians come from this group mainly.
Secrets of Genetics
The more developed technologies
enabled to get more deeper in the body, producing more exact results.
The internal and external characteristics of a creature is defined by
the DNA. The same molecule carries information of the origion of the
mankind, also including the relations of various ethnic groups, as well
as direct relative connections among individuals. This is done with so
called "marker genes". The subjects of the researches are the heavy (H)
and light (L) chains of immunoglobulines evolved for over 300-500
million years. The products of this evolution are also the four human
gamma-globuline (IgG) subdivisions. These genes define the
gamma-markers or Gm-antigenes, those charactersitics are dominant, not
defined by genes bound to chromosomes X or Y, detecable in
The Gm-markers do not combine ad hoc, and are standard throughout
human life. Exchange among the genes of the Gm system is very rare.
This means that if a specific range and frequency of Gm-characteristics
developed in a nation or population based on selections or other
population genetic mechanism becomes constant being kept over
generations. Special human types and separate nations below can be
different not only because of frequencies of GM-marker combinations,
but also in the combinations (haplogroups) available in the bloodserum
of the individuals of the groups. One of the best method of
observations of Gm-markers was developed by Hideo Matsumoto, Medical
professor of University Osaka, Japan.
The results of lately propagated wide range European DNA researches
seem to support the issue, that Hungarians are just an average
Europeans. There is no significant difference in them. Their closest
relatives are Polish, Ukrainians and Croatians. Other researches seem
to show results different to the Europe centric one.
The researches of GM-markers pointed out, that Gm ab3st and Gm afb1b3
apparent in Hungarians are missing from European nations. International
mitochondric DNA researches show the Central Asian characteristics of
Hungarians, also highlighting the fallacy of relating to Finnish and
nations called finnougrians.
There were DNA samples taken from 27 of 110 Settlement Age human
skeletons observed under the lead of István Raskó, the
director of Genetic Institue of Hungarian Scientific Academy, Biology
Center in Szeged. There were samples of hairs of 250 today's Hungarians
and Seklers living in Korond, Roumania. The clerks in the project
analyzed both the mitochondric DNA inheriting on matriarchaic lineage
only, while paternal inheritage was analyzed based on Y chromosome.
István Raskó highlighted, that the mitochondrial DNA
plebeian graves shows the picture characterizing western european
population, while there were inevitably Asian markers and South Eastern
European characteristics identified among settling Hungarians.
Researching Y chromosome could identify Asian, Uralic genetic markers
among the settlers.
"This marker appears among today's Finnougrians in high rate, but not
in today's Hungarian and Sekler men. This marker, the Finnougrian gene
was identified in only one Sekler sample out of the 250, told the
professor, explaining that this Y choromosome marker is available about
half of the settling age samples. This proves Asian origin of Settling
Hungarians to some extent" - István Raskó emphasized
There was also a typical Central Asia marker identified in the Y
chromosome of today's Seklers, suggesting "historic continuity". There
is also a Y chromosome marker of Anatolian origin in Hungarian and
Sekler population. "It is getting
into Europe via the Balkan peninsula,
but it's appearance among Hungarians and Seklers is higher than in any
other European Nations" poined out by the Genetics. According to
conclusion, "this marker could get into the Hungarian population by
"meeting with it" during their wanderings".
Based on the surveys of Erika
Bogácsi-Szabó, 10th century Hungarian samples appear in
the group of "Turkish", "Kurdish",
"Syrian", "Iraqi", Northern Osetian", "Azeri"
positioning between a smaller group containing Central Asian
populations and a bigger group of Western European populations. The
sequences of the graveyard of Harta, Hungary aiming the period of
Settlement shows an Eastern - Asian - dislocati
on compared to the 10th
century samples. The Harta population localized between the group
merging all samples of settlers and the Central Asian populations,
prevailing more Asian influence based on genetic distances.
The graph of genetic distances of populations - 1: Iraqi, 2: Syrian, 3:
Palestinian, 4: Armenian,
5: Azeri, 6:
Northern Osetian, 7: Bulgarian, 8: Romanian, 9: Albanina, 10: Italian,
Sycilian, 12: Sardinian, 13: Northern Portugese, 14:
15: Southern Portugese, 16: Northern Spanish, 17: Central and Southern
Galician, 19: Basque, 20: Helvetian, 21: Austrian, 22:
Russian, 24: Czechian, 25: Danish, 26: Swedish, 27: Norvegian,
28: Icelandic, 29:
Cornwall, 30: Welsh, 31: Scottish, 32: Estonian, 33:
Karelian, 34: Belgian,
35: English, 36: German, 37: Irish, 38: Kurdish, 39: French, 40:
41: Adige, 42: Belorussian, 43: Bosco Gurin, 44:
Bosnian, 45: Buryat, 46: Canarian, 47:
Croatian, 48: European Caucasian,
49: Venki, 50: Finnish, 51: Georgian, 52: Greek, 53:
Cretean, 54: Kazakh,
55: Kirgiz Highland, 56: Kirgiz Plain, 57: Komi, 58: Mari, 59: Moksa,
60: Mongolian, 61: Oberwallisian, 62: Osetian, 63:
Rhetoroman, 64: Lapp, 65: Serbian, 66:Slavonian, 67: Slovakian, 68:
Turkish, 69: Uyhgur,
70: Ukrainian, 71: Kunnish samples of Csengele 72: Today's Hungarian,
74: 10the century Settling Hungarian samples, 75: Settlement age
samples of Harta, Hungary
markers identified in
Hungarians by Hideo Matsumoto,
Department of Legal Medicine,
Osaka Medical College, Japan are
transparent from Japan until South and Southeastern Italians,
Sycilians and Saridinians exactly, also available among tribal nations
of Madhya Pradesh and Orissan states of India. However these mongoloid
markes found in Hungarians and more West suggests a more ancient
connection to East or the mongoloid origin of some parts of popultions
forming them, but not the whole nation. The theory bringing Hungarians
inrelation to Mesopotamia can be supported by the results of the
research. Comparing data of Hungarians
South, Southeastern area of the Caspian lake brings an surprising
results, or not as suprrising as it should be. The rate of Innermost
Asian and Indoeuropean genes fit to a great extent!
Let us see the results of a research less published in Hungary, before
considering our results as one sided, prejudicial approach.
In the Wake of Levi
Identification of origin is also a key issue for the Jewish nation. In
their case it is important for the clarification of the uneasy issue of
being descendants of three different mothers based on Biblical
descriptions, at least that is of the original twelve tribes. Is
speaking of a single Jewish nation valid? Moreover the question of the
tribe of Levi has a special importance being also a special class
within the nation as well as being always censed separatelly based on
the instructions of the Biblical Book of Numbers. The question is why?
Are they so speciafl, or different? Their scientists try to identify
the "Levite Gene", or the "Cohen Modal Haplotype" - abbreviated as CMH
since the discovery of the tool of genetics.
There was a research completed by Karl Sorecki, M. F. Hammer and D. M.
Behar in 2009. This research was analyzing 215 Cohen men of various
Jewish communities, 1575 men in the diaspora and 2099 non Jewish men in
the Near East, Europe, Central Asia and India also considering the
critics of a previous research to be mentioned later. The research
proved the most frequent Cohen lineage (46.1%) is characterized by the
mutation P58T->C, that is common in the Near East. They could also
identify a more widely spread CMH based on a variant of J-P58, that is
dominant among both askhenazi and non askhenazi cohens, but
significantly missing from non Jews. Based on the 17 STR the
divergences of this lineage are 3190 ± 1090 years old.
Noticeable, that the second most frequent cohen lineage (J-M410*,
14.4%) contains an extended modal haplotype, characterizing askhenazi
and non-askhenazi cohens only in the age of 4200 ± 1300 years.
These results support the theory of pre-diasporic Near Eastern origin
of CMH, also indicating the descendance of Jewish priesthood from some
The results of a previous research of the same scinetists was queried
by Ph.D. Avshalom
Zoossmann-Diskin in his study "Are today's Jewish priests
descended from the old ones?". The study
casts doubt on the hypothesis expounded by Michael F. Hammer, Karl
Skorecki, and their colleagues in their January 2, 1997 paper in Nature
volume 385 entitled "Y Chromosomes of Jewish Priests" and that of Karl
Skorecki, David Goldstein, et al. in Nature volume 394 entitled
"Origins of Old Testament Priests" as well as the related study with
the Lemba tribe of South Africa (American Journal of Human Genetics
volume 66) and Jewish populations around the world (PNAS volume 97
issue 12). These studies asserted that Ashkenazic Cohens are strongly
related to Sephardic Cohens and that today's Cohens are descended from
common paternal ancestors.
Zoossmann concludes that the existing
studies of Jewish priests are problematic and arrive at conclusions
that are not supported by all available data.
In Zoossmann-Diskin's summary, he
their [Skorecki's and Thomas's]
works reveals many faults that lead to the inevitable conclusion that
their claim [that most Cohenim share a common origin] has not been
proven. The faults are:
- the definition of the studied communities,
- significant differences between three samples of Jewish
- failure to use enough suitable markers to construct the
- problematic method of
calculating coalescence time and
- underestimating the mutation rate of Y
suggestion that the 'C
haplotype' is a signature haplotype for the ancient Hebrew population
is also not supported by data from other populations." (p. 156)
Specifically, Zoossmann explains
together the Sephardic
populations even though they are too diverse to be considered one unit.
Even the North African Jewish communities have genetic differences, as
Batsheva Bonne-Tamir et al. noted in a study in 1978 that is cited in
- The SRY4064, SRY 465, Tat, and sY81 polymorphisms were
for the purposes of the studies.
- Some useful markers were not used in the studies that
- The Cohen modal haplotype is the most common haplotype among
Southern and Central
Italians*1, Hungarians*2 and Iraqi Kurds*3
and is also found among many Armenians*4,
Greeks and South African Lembas*5."
This calls the notion into question
that the haplotype was a marker for
the ancient Hebrew population.
Zoossmann's study contains detailed
statistical information, charts, and 19 references.
However these researches of the origin of Levites seem to be
less successful, but they had some less propagated, interesting results.
The results of previous researches challenged by Ph.D Avraham
Zoossmann-Diskin can be summarized telling that to the researches
published in the late 90's
Cohen modal haplotype is the most common haplotype among Southern
and Central Italians*1, Hungarians*2 and Iraqi Kurds*3 and is also
found among many Armenians*4, Greeks and South African Lembas*5."
If this is true
than the researched CMH also should be called Urartu
The soul logic tells that the newly known gene is a common character of
any Sumerian related nations, based on the facts of "Cohen gene"
characterizes Hungarians in general, while other antropological signs
are shared, and Asian origin of Hungarians is undoubtable. This idea
support both the theories of the expansion and moves of Sumerians, also
the analyzis made by Zoltán Péli of the chapell of the
Moreover, citing the results of researches of István
Raskó et al.
is a Y marker of Anatolian origin represented in Hungarian and
Sekler populations. "However this Gm reached Europe through the
Balkans, the frequency of occurrence of this marker is higher among
Hungarians and Seklers than in any other European nations."
Director István Raskó
concluded this result as "this
marker could get into the Hungarian
population by "meeting with it" during their wanderings". But
soul logic must fail at this statement.
All current theories of the wanderings of Hungarians should be revised
if Hungarians did meet with the gene, during their wandering on the
Balkan. This statement also must conclude in claiming all contemporary
records of old Hungarians false. This would be hard to believe and get
This gene could not get into Hungarians by mistake. Receiving it from
outside would necessarily mean that it should be dominant among the
carrier populations of Asia minor or the Balkan Peninsula. Nevertheless "the frequency of occurrence of this
marker is higher among Hungarians and Seklers than in any other
It must be the identifier, the marker gene of Hungarians this way. The
father of the Hungarians seems to be honoured in the person originating
this marker, for it is a "Y chromosome of Anatolian origin", that is a
marker of male origin. Summarily the
gene could be called Nemere or Nimrod gene, a typical Hungaricum,
for the forefather of Hungarians and Huns was the "Sumerian" Tana or Etana, who is Nimrod living in the Near East.
Considering all it is possible to have big amount of similari
the genetic maps of Polish, Ukrainians, Croatians and Hungarians, but
it is not wonder. The good relation of Polish and Hungarians is kept in
the short phrase "Polish and Hungarian like good brothers, drinking
wine and fighting together". Those 900 years between the offering of
their country as perpetual province of the Hungarian crown in 1037 and
the Peace Dictate of Trianon could not pass without trace. Also there
are new theories of an older relation, claiming Croatinas to be the
descendants of old-Bulgarian "Kovrat" also not to ignore the results of
our researches based on historical sources pointing out that there was
a country called Harauhwathiya next to the ancient Turanian quarter of
Hungarians. The name of that country also recalls the name of Croatians
- Hrvats in their language and Horvát in Hungarian. Regarding
Ukrainians it is important to recall that the transient quarters of
Hungarians from the age of "Magna Hungaria" until their Return or
Settlement in the Carpathian Basin were placed in the lands of today's
Ukrainia, but also the impacts of the 3rd and 4th Ukrainian Front lines
at the end of World War II and the 60 years afterwards must be
It is found that Hungarians have
less connection to the Finnougrian nations from genetic perspective,
but much more to Asia and the East as it is propagated by the official
theory. Also there can be truth in the statements claiming some
elements of Hungarians among the settlers of the Mediterraneum, that is
also referred by the similarities of the Asian and "Cohen" genetic
substances. They are bound with many ties to Kurdish, Sycilians,
Sardinians and Armenians. As these results would support the
results of our investigations of the Hungarians' origin based on
historical and cultural areas. The researches of Mongoloid and levitic
genes, however being distant in place and time provide one more thought
Both researches coming independently to the relation same set of
nations raises question if the theory of Mario Alinei, the professor of
University Milan regarding Hungarian-Etrurian (linguistic) relation is
as impossible as it sounds? The theory and the results of the mentioned
researches seem to be bound by the Annales of Tacitus recording
"" (Tacitus, Annales II.55.)
The idea of Hungarian-Etrurian relation can not be definitelly ignored,
if Hungarians and Sardinians can be related genetically and Etrurians
claim to have common origin with Sardinians.
After all the difference of Hungarians and the general Europeans is
This could be felt or presumed only, but these seem to be supported by
the results of genetical and cultural researches. However their
forefathers lived, should live near to each other everywhere, closer
relations of Hungarians with Hebrews can not be proven by
antropological and genetic results. Nevertheless the results highlight,
that any researches regarding Hungarian old history would bring mor
useful results moving and extending the place of researches to the area
between Near East u to the Pamirs, to the area of birthplace of great
ancient world empires. The African connection is an interesting mystery