Of Hungarians' Genetics

magyarul

In the earliest times determination of the origin of a nation could be based on their own reports. The opportunities increased by being connect to them being able to observe their somatic traits, their nice looking first of all. Considering characteristics of their habits could further help to identify relations, especially if groups with similar habits were known already. Identity could be more precisely identified by the development of writing and culture. Appearance and development of Natural sciences was of course a big step forward.


There was a big race evolved driven by proudness and eager caused by the more information of ancient civilizations from the "Big Bang" of the scientific life. The goal was to prove cultural superiority and relation to the past glorious nations of the ancient world, supported by a huge amount of geopolitical tactics, economical resources and military troops. No doubt, every European nations could be the descendants of those late great empires, having sufficient size of colonies in the key geographic positions could get to pole position by the earned finanancials

The development of anthropology was also determined by the results of this race. The primary goal was besides objectivity to prove theories based on alleged or real results of archeology. This is how all European nations great in exploitation could become direct descendants of the European, Near and Middle Eastern high civilizations. This is how wheel inventing Schythian-Indogermans couls reach Germania in shot time of 4000 years from the area covering Eastern Europe up to Altai. This is how any Near Eastern cultures became Semitic, and this is how the Scythian kurgans of Central Asia cover the forefathers of all Slavs.

Of course Hungarians had to be put into the picture, but there was an ideology needed for Habsburgs had no interest to enforce the national feelings of the most rebellious colony. On one hand they would isolate Hungarians from Turkish-Turkic connections, also breaking national proudness to relate them to the Finnish to date having very low culture. In spite of the memories of old chronicles, legends and mythology binding Hungarians to Huns, to Atilla, the "Scourge of God". This initiative received the full support of linguistics, creating the thesis of Finno-Ugrain languages, that seems to be carved in stones in Hungary against the results of any other sciences, while the Finnish Academy of Sciences is already rejecting the theory.


The Antropological View
The result of antropology confirmed the obvious issues around the Finnougrian theory, also highlighting that against any other European nations, there is no word of a nation of single race in case Hungarians. Hungarians consist of at least five major antropologic groups.
  1. Turanid type. The old country of these people is the Heart of Asia, East Turkestan; this type is common among the ones graved in Astana from the 3rd century CE. The most Western (Northern and Southern) appearance of this type is in the Carpathian Basin in Europe, having 30-35% of occurrence in today's population of Hungary.
  2. Pamiro-Ferganian, Central Asian, Mesopotamian, or Anatolian Type comes from the area of Pamir, Tian-Shan, Altai, Central Asia and the Iranian Highland. This type of people were buried in Central Asian Astana and Ordos. The type reached the Carpathian Basin with the Huns first, then with Avars and Hungarians. This is the typical character of the Hungarian Plain's ploughmen, having 10-15% of occurrence in the Carpathian Basin.
  3. Taurid (Caucasian) Type characterizes Turkish, Scythian, Sarmatian and Yazig nations partially, occurring among Hungarians in 5-8% from the Hunnish times through Avars and the Settlement until today, however in the Kiskunság, this rate can easily go up to 14%. The old Country of this type is Asia Minor, the Caucasus, the old Mesopotamia, Persia and the Iranian Highland.
  4. North Baltic, or Eastern European type characterizes the people of the Eastern European Plains, where the fathers of Hungarians, Pechenegs, Kumans, Yazigs went through. However this type is not common in the old quarters of the Hungarians, the type could come from  Levedia and Etelköz quarters by mixture and join. This type occurs in 8-10% rate, but in Palócland can reach 35% because of mixing with Slavic population.
  5. Uralic, or Ugric Type characterizes Finnougrian nations, coming from the area between Urals and river Sayan. It's first occurrence among Hungarians can be proven from the 10th century CE in rate 0.6% that is valid also today. This means that Hungarians really went through some Finnougrian lands, but that population played no important role in shaping the ethnic picture of Hungarians. The "Mongoloid" elements of the Hungarians come from this group mainly.
Physiology also provides important information in the identification of the origin of a nation. Within the blood group system attributed to Landsteiner, the rate of the "0" and "B" bloodgroup genes characterizing Hungarians (31.05% and 17.90%) is off from the Indoeauropean and Finnougrian nations, but it is within the range found among Central Asian Turkic nations. There is another bloodgroup type among Hungarians, Diego [A+], that is present in no other people of Europe. The "Mongolian spot", that is almost unknown in Europe, has 22.6% occurrence. Lactose intolerance (missing lactose digestive enzyme), rare elsewhere in Europe, is at 37% among Hungarians, exactly as in Central Asia. The skin splinter system of Hungarians has Central Asian characteristic (low bend rates, but high vortices). Observing the bones of 9th century Hungarians antropologist Pál Lipták states, that 24% of Settling Hungarians was Turanid, 20% Pamirian and 2-3% belongs to the formations arose in Asia. Turanid type is the mix of andrvov and mongolic types, while the Pamiro-Ferganian is an archetype of Xinjiang, the land under Chinese control today. These are all evidences of the relationship of the 8th century Hungarians and the oldest inhabitants of Northwestern China. Ethnic set up of today's Hungarians is basically the same as in the 9th century, according antropologist Gyula Henkey, for the later settling populations shared similar characteristics coming from old Hun and Avar territories.


Secrets of Genetics
The more developed technologies enabled to get more deeper in the body, producing more exact results. The internal and external characteristics of a creature is defined by the DNA. The same molecule carries information of the origion of the mankind, also including the relations of various ethnic groups, as well as direct relative connections among individuals. This is done with so called "marker genes". The subjects of the researches are the heavy (H) and light (L) chains of immunoglobulines evolved for over 300-500 million years. The products of this evolution are also the four human gamma-globuline (IgG) subdivisions. These genes define the gamma-markers or Gm-antigenes, those charactersitics are dominant, not defined by genes bound to chromosomes X or Y, detecable in heterozigotes too.
The Gm-markers do not combine ad hoc, and are standard throughout human life. Exchange among the genes of the Gm system is very rare. This means that if a specific range and frequency of Gm-characteristics developed in a nation or population based on selections or other population genetic mechanism becomes constant being kept over generations. Special human types and separate nations below can be different not only because of frequencies of GM-marker combinations, but also in the combinations (haplogroups) available in the bloodserum of the individuals of the groups. One of the best method of observations of Gm-markers was developed by Hideo Matsumoto, Medical professor of University Osaka, Japan.

The results of lately propagated wide range European DNA researches seem to support the issue, that Hungarians are just an average Europeans. There is no significant difference in them. Their closest relatives are Polish, Ukrainians and Croatians. Other researches seem to show results different to the Europe centric one.

The researches of GM-markers pointed out, that Gm ab3st and Gm afb1b3 apparent in Hungarians are missing from European nations. International mitochondric DNA researches show the Central Asian characteristics of Hungarians, also highlighting the fallacy of relating to Finnish and nations called finnougrians.

There were DNA samples taken from 27 of 110 Settlement Age human skeletons observed under the lead of István Raskó, the director of Genetic Institue of Hungarian Scientific Academy, Biology Center in Szeged. There were samples of hairs of 250 today's Hungarians and Seklers living in Korond, Roumania. The clerks in the project analyzed both the mitochondric DNA inheriting on matriarchaic lineage only, while paternal inheritage was analyzed based on Y chromosome.
István Raskó highlighted, that the mitochondrial DNA gathered in plebeian graves shows the picture characterizing western european population, while there were inevitably Asian markers and South Eastern European characteristics identified among settling Hungarians. Researching Y chromosome could identify Asian, Uralic genetic markers among the settlers.
"This marker appears among today's Finnougrians in high rate, but not in today's Hungarian and Sekler men. This marker, the Finnougrian gene was identified in only one Sekler sample out of the 250, told the professor, explaining that this Y choromosome marker is available about half of the settling age samples. This proves Asian origin of Settling Hungarians to some extent" - István Raskó emphasized

There was also a typical Central Asia marker identified in the Y chromosome of today's Seklers, suggesting "historic continuity". There is also a Y chromosome marker of Anatolian origin in Hungarian and Sekler population. "It is getting into Europe via the Balkan peninsula, but it's appearance among Hungarians and Seklers is higher than in any other European Nations" poined out by the Genetics. According to his conclusion, "this marker could get into the Hungarian population by "meeting with it" during their wanderings".


Based on the surveys of Erika Bogácsi-Szabó, 10th century Hungarian samples appear in the group of "Turkish", "Kurdish", "Ukrainian", "Palestinian", "Syrian", "Iraqi", Northern Osetian", "Azeri" and "Komi" populations positioning between a smaller group containing Central Asian populations and a bigger group of Western European populations. The sequences of the graveyard of Harta, Hungary aiming the period of Hungarian Settlement shows an Eastern - Asian - dislocati on compared to the 10th century samples. The Harta population localized between the group merging all samples of settlers and the Central Asian populations, prevailing more Asian influence based on genetic distances.

The graph of genetic distances of populations - 1: Iraqi, 2: Syrian, 3: Palestinian, 4: Armenian, 5: Azeri, 6: Northern Osetian, 7: Bulgarian, 8: Romanian, 9: Albanina, 10: Italian, 11: Sycilian, 12: Sardinian, 13: Northern Portugese, 14: Central Portugese, 15: Southern Portugese, 16: Northern Spanish, 17: Central and Southern Spanish, 18: Galician, 19: Basque, 20: Helvetian, 21: Austrian, 22: Polish, 23: Russian, 24: Czechian, 25: Danish, 26: Swedish, 27: Norvegian, 28: Icelandic, 29: Cornwall, 30: Welsh, 31: Scottish, 32: Estonian, 33: Karelian, 34: Belgian, 35: English, 36: German, 37: Irish, 38: Kurdish, 39: French, 40: Breton, 41: Adige, 42: Belorussian, 43: Bosco Gurin, 44: Bosnian, 45: Buryat, 46: Canarian, 47: Croatian, 48: European Caucasian, 49: Venki, 50: Finnish, 51: Georgian, 52: Greek, 53: Cretean, 54: Kazakh, 55: Kirgiz Highland, 56: Kirgiz Plain, 57: Komi, 58: Mari, 59: Moksa, 60: Mongolian, 61: Oberwallisian, 62: Osetian, 63: Rhetoroman, 64: Lapp, 65: Serbian, 66:Slavonian, 67: Slovakian, 68: Turkish, 69: Uyhgur, 70: Ukrainian, 71: Kunnish samples of Csengele 72: Today's Hungarian, 73: Sekler, 74: 10the century Settling Hungarian samples, 75: Settlement age samples of Harta, Hungary


The mongoloid markers identified in Hungarians by Hideo Matsumoto, Department of Legal Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Japan are transparent from Japan until South and Southeastern Italians, the Sycilians and Saridinians exactly, also available among tribal nations of Madhya Pradesh and Orissan states of India. However these mongoloid markes found in Hungarians and more West suggests a more ancient connection to East or the mongoloid origin of some parts of popultions forming them, but not the whole nation. The theory bringing Hungarians inrelation to Mesopotamia can be supported by the results of the research. Comparing data of Hungarians with the data of South, Southeastern area of the Caspian lake brings an surprising results, or not as suprrising as it should be. The rate of Innermost Asian and Indoeuropean genes fit to a great extent!

Hungarians
Identified Gm types
Central Europe
South Southeastern Caspian region South Southeastern Caspian region

Let us see the results of a research less published in Hungary, before considering our results as one sided, prejudicial approach.


In the Wake of Levi
Identification of origin is also a key issue for the Jewish nation. In their case it is important for the clarification of the uneasy issue of being descendants of three different mothers based on Biblical descriptions, at least that is of the original twelve tribes. Is speaking of a single Jewish nation valid? Moreover the question of the tribe of Levi has a special importance being also a special class within the nation as well as being always censed separatelly based on the instructions of the Biblical Book of Numbers. The question is why? Are they so speciafl, or different? Their scientists try to identify the "Levite Gene", or the "Cohen Modal Haplotype" - abbreviated as CMH - since the discovery of the tool of genetics.


There was a research completed by Karl Sorecki, M. F. Hammer and D. M. Behar in 2009. This research was analyzing 215 Cohen men of various Jewish communities, 1575 men in the diaspora and 2099 non Jewish men in the Near East, Europe, Central Asia and India also considering the critics of a previous research to be mentioned later. The research proved the most frequent Cohen lineage (46.1%) is characterized by the mutation P58T->C, that is common in the Near East. They could also identify a more widely spread CMH based on a variant of J-P58, that is dominant among both askhenazi and non askhenazi cohens, but significantly missing from non Jews. Based on the 17 STR the divergences of this lineage are 3190 ± 1090 years old. Noticeable, that the second most frequent cohen lineage (J-M410*, 14.4%) contains an extended modal haplotype, characterizing askhenazi and non-askhenazi cohens only in the age of 4200 ± 1300 years.

These results support the theory of pre-diasporic Near Eastern origin of CMH, also indicating the descendance of Jewish priesthood from some fathers only.

The results of a previous research of the same scinetists was queried by Ph.D. Avshalom Zoossmann-Diskin in his study "Are today's Jewish priests descended from the old ones?". The study casts doubt on the hypothesis expounded by Michael F. Hammer, Karl Skorecki, and their colleagues in their January 2, 1997 paper in Nature volume 385 entitled "Y Chromosomes of Jewish Priests" and that of Karl Skorecki, David Goldstein, et al. in Nature volume 394 entitled "Origins of Old Testament Priests" as well as the related study with the Lemba tribe of South Africa (American Journal of Human Genetics volume 66) and Jewish populations around the world (PNAS volume 97 issue 12). These studies asserted that Ashkenazic Cohens are strongly related to Sephardic Cohens and that today's Cohens are descended from common paternal ancestors.
Zoossmann concludes that the existing studies of Jewish priests are problematic and arrive at conclusions that are not supported by all available data.

In Zoossmann-Diskin's summary, he writes that

"Careful examination of their [Skorecki's and Thomas's] works reveals many faults that lead to the inevitable conclusion that their claim [that most Cohenim share a common origin] has not been proven. The faults are:

The suggestion that the 'C ohen modal haplotype' is a signature haplotype for the ancient Hebrew population is also not supported by data from other populations." (p. 156)

Specifically, Zoossmann explains that:

"The studies of the Cohens merge together the Sephardic populations even though they are too diverse to be considered one unit. Even the North African Jewish communities have genetic differences, as Batsheva Bonne-Tamir et al. noted in a study in 1978 that is cited in Zoossmann's paper.
This calls the notion into question that the haplotype was a marker for the ancient Hebrew population.
Zoossmann's study contains detailed statistical information, charts, and 19 references.


Gotcha, Nimrod!
However these researches of the origin of Levites seem to be less successful, but they had some less propagated, interesting results.
The results of previous researches challenged by Ph.D Avraham Zoossmann-Diskin can be summarized telling that to the researches published in the late 90's
"The Cohen modal haplotype is the most common haplotype among Southern and Central Italians*1, Hungarians*2 and Iraqi Kurds*3 and is also found among many Armenians*4, Greeks and South African Lembas*5."

If this is true than the researched CMH also should be called Urartu Gene. The soul logic tells that the newly known gene is a common character of any Sumerian related nations, based on the facts of "Cohen gene" characterizes Hungarians in general, while other antropological signs are shared, and Asian origin of Hungarians is undoubtable. This idea support both the theories of the expansion and moves of Sumerians, also the analyzis made by Zoltán Péli of the chapell of the castle of Esztergom.


Moreover, citing the results of researches of István Raskó et al.
Moreover there is a Y marker of Anatolian origin represented in Hungarian and Sekler populations. "However this Gm reached Europe through the Balkans, the frequency of occurrence of this marker is higher among Hungarians and Seklers than in any other European nations."
Director István Raskó concluded this result as "this marker could get into the Hungarian population by "meeting with it" during their wanderings". But soul logic must fail at this statement.
All current theories of the wanderings of Hungarians should be revised if Hungarians did meet with the gene, during their wandering on the Balkan. This statement also must conclude in claiming all contemporary records of old Hungarians false. This would be hard to believe and get accepted.

This gene could not get into Hungarians by mistake. Receiving it from outside would necessarily mean that it should be dominant among the carrier populations of Asia minor or the Balkan Peninsula. Nevertheless "the frequency of occurrence of this marker is higher among Hungarians and Seklers than in any other European nations". It must be the identifier, the marker gene of Hungarians this way. The father of the Hungarians seems to be honoured in the person originating this marker, for it is a "Y chromosome of Anatolian origin", that is a marker of male origin. Summarily the gene could be called Nemere or Nimrod gene, a typical Hungaricum, for the forefather of Hungarians and Huns was the "Sumerian" Tana or Etana, who is Nimrod living in the Near East.


Conclusion
Considering all it is possible to have big amount of similari ties among the genetic maps of Polish, Ukrainians, Croatians and Hungarians, but it is not wonder. The good relation of Polish and Hungarians is kept in the short phrase "Polish and Hungarian like good brothers, drinking wine and fighting together". Those 900 years between the offering of their country as perpetual province of the Hungarian crown in 1037 and the Peace Dictate of Trianon could not pass without trace. Also there are new theories of an older relation, claiming Croatinas to be the descendants of old-Bulgarian "Kovrat" also not to ignore the results of our researches based on historical sources pointing out that there was a country called Harauhwathiya next to the ancient Turanian quarter of Hungarians. The name of that country also recalls the name of Croatians - Hrvats in their language and Horvát in Hungarian. Regarding Ukrainians it is important to recall that the transient quarters of Hungarians from the age of "Magna Hungaria" until their Return or Settlement in the Carpathian Basin were placed in the lands of today's Ukrainia, but also the impacts of the 3rd and 4th Ukrainian Front lines at the end of World War II and the 60 years afterwards must be considered.

It is found that Hungarians have less connection to the Finnougrian nations from genetic perspective, but much more to Asia and the East as it is propagated by the official theory. Also there can be truth in the statements claiming some elements of Hungarians among the settlers of the Mediterraneum, that is also referred by the similarities of the Asian and "Cohen" genetic substances. They are bound with many ties to Kurdish, Sycilians, Sardinians and Armenians. As these results would support the results of our investigations of the Hungarians' origin based on historical and cultural areas. The researches of Mongoloid and levitic genes, however being distant in place and time provide one more thought provoking result.
Both researches coming independently to the relation same set of nations raises question if the theory of Mario Alinei, the professor of University Milan regarding Hungarian-Etrurian (linguistic) relation is as impossible as it sounds? The theory and the results of the mentioned researches seem to be bound by the Annales of Tacitus recording
"" (Tacitus, Annales II.55.)

The idea of Hungarian-Etrurian relation can not be definitelly ignored, if Hungarians and Sardinians can be related genetically and Etrurians claim to have common origin with Sardinians.

After all the difference of Hungarians and the general Europeans is obvious. This could be felt or presumed only, but these seem to be supported by the results of genetical and cultural researches. However their forefathers lived, should live near to each other everywhere, closer relations of Hungarians with Hebrews can not be proven by antropological and genetic results. Nevertheless the results highlight, that any researches regarding Hungarian old history would bring mor e useful results moving and extending the place of researches to the area between Near East u to the Pamirs, to the area of birthplace of great ancient world empires. The African connection is an interesting mystery to resolve.

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